Abstract of Dissertation

Agency : Restricted and Unrestricted Antibiotics, Antibiotic Monitor Calculator, Defined Daily Dose

Objective : The objectives of the study were to monitor the consumption of antibiotics, to perform a comparative study between the usage of restricted and unrestricted antibiotics in ICUs and wards, to compare with international standards and to a standardised tool for point prevalence evaluation of antibiotic use

Background : Antibacterial resistance is a stark reality across globe. Owing to the increased disease burden pertaining to bacterial origin, there is a tremendous rise in the use of antibiotics that can be disastrous in the long run. Antibiotic resistance leads to increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of treament, increased length of stay and treatable infections becoming untreatable similar to the pre antibiotics era. One of the major challenges is the absence of a good monitoring or surveillance system for prescriptions. Possible reasons for irrational over usage be the lack of microbiological facilities, doctors prescribing antibiotics to any patients with a fever taking it as a sign of bacterial infection, desire to fulfil patient expectations, financial incentives for doctors to make a profit from drug sales and public’s lack of knowledge about the (in)appropriate use of antibiotics.

Methodology : A retrospective analytical study was done to monitor the utilisation of 5 restricted and 9 unrestricted antibioics. The data was collected from HIS and calculations done manually and using the antibiotic amonitoring Calculator.

Findings : The antibiotic consumption has increased by 10.32% and the expenditure on procurement of antibiotics had increased by 16%. The resricted antibiotics were being used more in ICUs than in wards. The usage of restricted antibiotics decreased over the time period whereas the utilisation of unrestricted antibiotics increased.

Recommendations : Antibiotic Utilization Monitoring is the key to accountable care and healthcare reform by continually evaluating, identifying, assessing, and stratifying the utilization pattern. Appropriate use of antibiotics can lead to decreased incidence of resistant cases thereby causing decreased morbidity, decreased cost and increased patient satisfaction.