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To Study the Implementation Status of the PC & PNDT Act


  • Akanksha Sharma
  • Agency : Sex Ratio, Implementation, Female Foeticide, PCPNDT, Sex Selection, Sex Determination
  • Objective : To study the implementation status of PC&PNDT Act related provisions across Indian states with child sex ratio below the national average


  • Background : Over the past 50 years there has been a steady decline in the country's sex ratio. Whereas the overall sex ratio has shown improvement since 1991, decline in Child Sex Ratio (0-6) has been unabated since 1961 census. The influence of widespread availability and use of sex selection and determination techniques on sex ratios is well-documented and acknowledged. The PC&PNDT Act is a strong legal tool, prohibiting sex selection and regulating the pre-diagnostic techniques. However, strict implementation of the provisions of the Act along with regular monitoring and action against the defaulters is necessary for any results to show.


  • Methodology : This was an exploratory study aimed to ascertain the status of implementation of the PC&PNDT Act. It primarily uses data from various government sources for findings and analysis. It covered Indian states which have a child sex ratio below the national average (914) as per Census 2011 provisional data.


  • Findings : Entire exercise points out to clear deficiencies on the part of study states in implementing the provisions of the act. Funding for implementing PC&PNDT provisions through NRHM Flexipool has been erratic for the years gone by and whatever little funds allocated have not been utilized by the states. Statutory bodies are the backbone of an effective implementation of PC&PNDT provisions, their non-establishment and not being operational puts a big question mark on the status of implementation in all states. The data clearly points at maximum cases of violation being filed in the states where sex ratio is the lowest. Pendency of registered cases however, seems highest in Rajasthan and Gujarat.



  • Recommendations : After more than 15 years of enforcement of the Act, it is time to take a serious re-look at the performance of the provisions of the Act to accurately understand the current status, and to identify areas of improvement for focused intervention.


To study the implementation status of PC&PNDT Act related provisions across Indian states with child sex ratio below the national average