Abstract of Dissertation

Keyword : Ischemic Heart Disease; Risk Factors; Tribal; Non-Communicable Diseases

Objective : • To study the existing knowledge on Ischemic Heart Disease of tribal • To explore the current practices of tribal adding risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

Background : According to the Global status report on Non-communicable diseases 2014, in 2012 5.6 crore deaths in the world of which 3.8 crore were due to NCDs (principally CVDs, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer). Low and middle- income countries accounted for three-fourths of NCD deaths. In India, 61 % of deaths occur from NCDs and 23%are at risk of premature death due to such diseases. CVDs are the causes 45% of all NCD deaths. In Gujarat NCDs form 56.7 % of disease burden and ischemic heart disease is the major cause of DALYs in 2016. Chhotaudepur is recently created tribal dominated district and in this district. Though studies have been conducted in urban and rural areas, data related to tribal communities is limited hence it becomes essential to understand behavioral habits of the tribal which makes them prone to ischemic heart disease and also take physical measurements like height, weight, and blood pressure to substantiate study. Knowledge of risk factors of Ischemic heart disease is important in the prevention of the disease, checking such knowledge among the tribal population, would provide data on Knowledge of tribal population and need for conduction of further IEC activities.

Methodology : Cross-sectional Study was conducted among tribal population of Chhota Udepur district in Gujarat. Participants were of the age of 30years and above and currently not having any cardiovascular disease. The sample was collected using random sampling and assuming 4% prevalence rate of ischemic heart disease. Structured Questionnaire based on WHO STEPS instrument which contained information Age, sex, tribe, Knowledge of risk factors of IHD, behavioral practices was administered by taking interview of respondents with the help of Gujarati translator. Physical measurements like Blood pressure, height, weight was also taken. Data were analyzed by the use of Microsoft Excel. Knowledge score was scaled as 0-5 (No awareness) 6-10 (Partially aware) Above 10 (Fully aware). Standard BMI scale and standard Hypertension guidelines were used for the analysis of height, weight and blood pressure data.

Findings : A total of 145 participants were surveyed including 81 males and 64 females. Respondent’s knowledge was analyzed based on the score from 15 questions on knowledge of risk factors of IHD. More than four-fifths of the respondents (82%) had no awareness about risk factors of IHD whereas around 13% of respondents were partially aware and 4% were fully aware. Gender wise analysis of Knowledge score showed that Males were more aware than females. Around 78 % of males and 88%of females had no awareness about risk factors of IHD. There was an absence of risk factors of alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of physical activity among the majority of the study population. A Majority of the population (70%) had normal weight under BMI scale. Raised blood pressure was found among one-third of the study population.

Recommendations : In the present study the majority of the study population were not aware of risk factors of IHD which a cause of great concern is. There was an absence of any risk factors of IHD among the majority of the study population except raised blood pressure among one-third of the population. This study recommends the need for conduction of comprehensive IEC activities among the tribal population. The regular screening of population above 30 years for the IHDs should be conducted.